The classList API

by .

I have to be honest with you: I feel like a fraud writing about JavaScript for HTML5 Doctor. I would feel like a fraud writing about JavaScript for a click-driven ad-splattered content farm, never mind HTML5 Doctor.

The thing is though, I’m writing about the classList API, and it’s super easy. If your JavaScript-fu isn’t great and you’re wary of HTML5 APIs, this one is at the perfect temperature for toe-dipping, and it’ll leave you pleasantly surprised at just how easy it is.

The classList API is a “does exactly what it says on the tin” API. It gets a list of the classes on an HTML element and uses JavaScript to manipulate it.

Before this nugget of HTML5 came along, working with classes was a royal pain, but what was once a twisty overgrown cowpath with wolves lurking in thickets is now a bright sunlit path fit for rollerskating.

Getting the classList

Getting the classList is a simple matter of element.classList, like so:

<p id="bad-joke" class="oh my giddy aunt">Two dogs are in the park. One says, "Nice day, isn't it?" The other says, "Holy crap, a talking dog!"</p>

    var joke = document.getElementById('bad-joke');

That will log something like ["oh", "my", "giddy", "aunt"]. The output style varies between browsers, but it will be an object containing a list of the classes on the element.

More accurately, it’s an object that stringifies to the value of the class attribute on the element in question. Try it yourself with the console open.

    0: "oh",
    1: "my",
    2: "giddy",
    3: "aunt"

There is no specification for classList per se (it gets a sentence in the DOM4 spec), but there is for DOMTokenList, which is classList‘s type, so look at the DOMTokenList specification to find out how to work with lists of classes.

The Type of classList

If you’re looking to confirm the type of classList, you’ll need to do element.classList instanceof DOMTokenList, which returns true. typeof element.classList returns “object”, which, given that everything in JavaScript is an object, isn’t particularly informative.

Doing Things with our List of Classes

The DOMTokenList spec provides a number of methods that can be used on the classList:

  • add() for adding a class to the list
  • remove() for removing a class from the list
  • contains() to check if a class is in the list
  • toggle() for toggling a class in and out of the list (with a twist)
  • item() to return the class at a specified position in the list
  • toString() for turning the list into a string
  • length to return the number of classes in the list
  • value to add custom properties and methods to the classList object


It couldn’t be easier to add a class to an element. Just supply the class you want to add as an argument to the add() method.


If you view the demo and look at the opening <p> tag in your favourite inspector before and after pressing the button, you’ll see it change from <p id="bad-joke" class="oh my giddy aunt"> to <p id="bad-joke" class="oh my giddy aunt beryl">.

Adding a class to the <p> is all done with that one line. No need to inject inline styles or anything messy like that.

The corresponding classList object is:

    0: "oh",
    1: "my",
    2: "giddy",
    3: "aunt",
    4: "beryl"


Removing a class is just as easy. joke.classList.remove('beryl') brings us back to where we started.

View demo.

Adding and Removing Multiple Classes

The DOMTokenList spec refers to “tokens”, plural when describing how the add() and remove() methods should be run.

The add(tokens…) method […] If one of tokens is the empty string […] If one of tokens contains any ASCII whitespace […] For each token in tokens

No browser so far has implemented a native method of adding/removing more than one class at a time, but it’s trivial to extend the DOMTokenList object prototype with a hand rolled function:

It’s possible to add and remove multiple classes in the Blink powered browsers with element.classList.add('oh','my'), and it’s trivial to extend the DOMTokenList object prototype with a hand rolled function until support is more widespread:

Thanks to David and Kalley for pointing that out in the comments.

DOMTokenList.prototype.addmany = function(classes) {
    var classes = classes.split(' '),
        i = 0,
        ii = classes.length;

    for(i; i<ii; i++) {

Same goes for remove:

DOMTokenList.prototype.removemany = function(classes) {
    var classes = classes.split(' '),
        i = 0,
        ii = classes.length;

    for(i; i<ii; i++) {

Here’s a demo where you can add and remove multiple classes at once.

A bug was filed in 2011 (against a document that no longer exists) suggesting allowing a space separated list or an array in classList.add() and classList.remove().

The use of the plural “tokens” could be interpreted as allowing an array, but it doesn’t work. InvalidCharacterError is still specified as the exception to throw if there are any spaces in “tokens”, so that’s definitely not going to work.

If you want to replace an entire classList with a completely different set of classes, you could use these two functions.


This method returns a Boolean true or false when checking for the presence of a class in the list.

In our example:

joke.classList.contains('aunt') === true;
joke.classList.contains('uncle') === false;

contains() is useful for checking if a class is in a list before performing an action that depends on its presence (or otherwise):

if(joke.classList.contains('beryl') {

We can use contains() to make our previous functions for adding and removing multiple classes better by ensuring they do not try to add duplicate classes on the element or remove classes that don’t exist on it:

DOMTokenList.prototype.addmany = function(classes) {
    var classes = classes.split(' '),
        i = 0,
        ii = classes.length;

    for(i; i<ii; i++) {
        if(!this.contains(classes[i])) {


DOMTokenList.prototype.removemany = function(classes) {
    var classes = classes.split(' '),
        i = 0,
        ii = classes.length;

    for(i; i<ii; i++) {
        if(this.contains(classes[i])) {


For most use cases, classList.toggle() is very straightforward too. Typically, an action by the program or the user will trigger a function that adds or removes a class depending on whether it’s already in the list.

A simple show/hide is a good example of this:

button.addEventListener('click', function() { element.classList.toggle('is-visible'); }, false);

View a demo of a two-level menu that takes up a little less room in smaller viewports by using classList.toggle() to enhance sub-menus.


There’s a little twist to toggle(), though. It can take an optional second parameter, force.

If force is set to true, the class will be added but not removed. If it’s false, the opposite will happen — the class will be removed but not added.

Now that sounds a lot like add() and remove(), but there is a crucial difference: toggle() with force returns true when a class is added, and false when it’s removed — add() and remove() return undefined.

At the time of writing, only the Blink powered browsers honour the force parameter, so view the demo with true and the demo with false in Opera 15, Opera for Android, or the latest Chrome to see it working.

Browsers that don’t support force completely ignore it and merrily toggle the class name on and off without throwing exceptions.

When it’s more widely supported, we can use a slightly leaner syntax for ensuring the presence or absence of a class in the list. Instead of:

var foo = function() {


if(joke.classList.contains('beryl')) {
    // do stuff

we could write:

var foo = function() {
    return joke.classList.toggle('beryl', true);

if(foo()) {
    // do stuff


The item() method can be found elsewhere in JavaScript, usually on NodeList objects. It returns the value of the item at index counting from zero.

In our example:

<div id="bad-joke" class="oh my giddy aunt">
    <p>"Knock knock."</p>
    <p>"Come on in, the door's open."</p>

    var joke = document.getElementById('bad-joke'),

        whats_item_0 = function() {
            return joke.classList.item(0);

        whats_item_2 = function() {
            return joke.classList.item(2);

    console.log(whats_item_0()); // logs "oh"
    console.log(whats_item_2()); // logs "giddy"

View the demo.

classList.item() cannot be used for assignment, so joke.classList.item(3) = 'uncle' will throw an error.

If you were hoping classList.item() could assign values to items at specific positions in the list, I’m afraid you’ll be disappointed. There’s no DOMTokenList method that gives that level of control over the list.


If you ever need the classList turned into a string use this method. toString() is another built in JavaScript method that isn’t specific to DOMTokenList.

All the W3C spec says on the subject is that DOMTokenList objects must stringify to the underlying string. WHATWG leaves it at The stringifier must return the result of the set serializer for the associated list of tokens.

The only difference between the two is the amount of plain English used.

It takes no parameters when used with classList and returns all the classes on the element as a space separated string:

// returns "oh my giddy aunt";


length is also a built-in JavaScript property. It returns the number of characters in a string, the number of items in an array, the number of arguments expected in a function, or (in our case) the number of classes in classList. In our example using “oh my giddy aunt”, it’s 4.

// returns 4

Simple and obvious, hopefully.


On their own, the item(), toString(), and length methods aren’t especially useful. They can, however, be used in conjunction with each other and the rest of the methods of DOMTokenList to solve some of the problems I mentioned earlier.

Remember that classList is a regular JavaScript object, so we can add properties to it the same as any other object:

classList.use_in_production = false; = 5;
classList.roof = 'thatch';

And of course we can add methods. Here’s a method that replaces the entire list with a new one using length, toString(), add(), and remove():

element.classList.replace = function(classes) {
    var i = 0,
        ii = this.length,
        old_string = this.toString(),
        old_array = old_string.split(' '),
        new_array = classes.split(' '),
        j = 0,
        jj = new_array.length;

    // remove all the existing classes
    for(i; i<ii; i++) {

    // add the new ones
    for(j; j<jj; j++) {

And here’s a method that inserts a class in any position in the list you want. It uses contains(), item(), remove(), toString(), and the replace() method we just made:

element.classList.insert = function(insert,position) {
    // check if the class is already in classList
    if(this.contains(insert)) {
        if(this.item(position) === insert) {
            // if it is already at the right position there's no need to continue
        } else {
            // remove it, we don't want it here

    var classes = this.toString(),
        classes_array = classes.split(' ');

        classes_array.splice(position, 0, insert);

        new_list = classes_array.join(' ');

        // use the custom replace method to replace the current classList

Being realistic, methods like these would probably be better used to extend DOMTokenList like we did with addmany() and removemany(), but if you ever need something specific to a particular classList you’re working on, you can use value.

Browser Support and Polyfills

The classList API works in pretty much every up-to-date browser version. Basic support at least has been in since Firefox 3.6, Opera 11.50, Chrome 8, and Safari 5.1.

The big holes are IE9 and earlier and the still widely used Android 2.3 and earlier.

There are at least two polyfills available that can fill these holes.

Devon Govett’s was written quickly to add support to IE9 only, and it’s worth reading the comments for some good cross-browser JavaScript info.

Eli Grey’s polyfill has wider browser support. It works in IE8, and it provides basic classList.add(), classList.remove(), and classList.toggle() support to at least as far back as Android 2.1.

There’s also a polyfill for adding force support by Егор Халимоненко to browsers that support classList but not force on toggle().

If you only need a simple feature test you can use:

if('classList' in document.createElement('a')) {
    // use classList API


You can think of the classList API on two levels. For most uses, it’s a simple way to add, remove, toggle, and check for the presence of single classes in an HTML element. I use it in every project I work on now and very rarely need to stray beyond these basic methods. I can’t think of any use for item(), length, or toString() as stand-alone methods, so don’t fret about them.

On another level, it’s about objects, it’s about finding powerful ways to manipulate the state of web pages, it’s about separation of concerns, it’s about progressive enhancement.

How far you take it is up to you, but as I said at the start, it’s an easy one to get into and makes what was hard, easy. I encourage you to take what I’ve written here and experiment in your own projects if you’re new to it, and take to the comments to tell me where I could have said it better if you’re already familiar with it.

Thank you!

20 Responses on the article “The classList API”

  • add() and remove() can take several arguments, e.g. add(“a”, “b”). Supported in WebKit and Blink.

  • Great summary, Derek! I think it’s worth pointing out that best-practices suggest that we first test for the existence of a method on the prototype of a standard object like DOMTokenList before attempting to extend it so that we don’t run the risk of breaking future implementations that may include such a method:

    if (!DOMTokenList.prototype.replace) {
    DOMTokenList.prototype.replace = function() {
    // etc.

  • Kalley says:

    On Chrome 28, both add and remove let you do the following for multiple classes:

    element.classList.add('one', 'two', 'three');

    Firefox 22 and Safari 6 will only add the first one if used like that.

  • Derek Johnson says:

    Thanks Kevin, excellent point.

  • zzzzBov says:

    If you’re making the (foolish) choice to extend the DOMTokenList prototype with your own custom functions, be sure to follow the specification on class names. Classes may be separated by whitespace characters, which include: space, tab, newline, carriage return, and form feed characters.

  • Derek Johnson says:

    @Kalley and David,

    Thanks for that, I’ve updated the article.

  • Hans B PUFAL says:

    I wrote an extension function which allows you to add, delete or toggle styles in any combination all from one call. In addition you can do all that for a list of nodes :

    function classOps (list) {
    var ops = [] (arguments, 1).join (',');
    if (list.constructor == NodeList) {
    [] (list) (function (node) { classOps (node.classList, ops); });

    ops.split (/(?:\s*,\s*|\s+)/).forEach (function (cl) {
    (cl = cl.match (/^([-+^])([_a-z]+[_a-z0-9-]*$/i) || [cl]).length > 1 ?
    list[[cl[1]]].call (list, cl[2]) :
    console.log ('Invalid class op : ' + cl, list);
    } = {'-': 'remove', '+': 'add', '^': 'toggle'};

    Typical calls :

    classOps (node, '+newClass', '-gone', '^peek-a-booe');

    classOps (querySelectorAll ('.toggle'), '+toggled ^toggle');

    The first will add a class ‘newClass’, remove the class ‘gone’ and toggle the class ‘peek-a-boo’.

    The second will add class ‘toggled’ and toggle class ‘toggle’ on all nodes which have a class of ‘toggle’.

    The classops may be specified in as any number of string parameters each containing a comma or space delimited list of classops.

    The list may be a single element reference or a NodeList as returned, for example, from querySelectorAll.

  • Alan Smith says:

    Do you have video tutorial for “force” ? So, i can understand more.

  • Derek Johnson says:

    @Alan, I don’t know of any video tutorials. What is there in the demo you’re not sure about?

    @zzzzBof Can you explain why it’s foolish to extend DOMTokenList if we take precautions like Kevin Sweeney pointed out?

  • Sumit says:

    Nice article. Sadly i can’t use this API as long as i need to support IE8 in almost every project. The libraries provided here don’t give me an advantage over jQuery which I use anyway most of the time.

  • zzzzBov says:

    @Derek Johnson, if the future implementation is not compatible with the implementation provided by the prototype extension, your usage of the prototype extension will break.

    Worse, if you then decide to use a library that uses feature detection for features on the classList API, the library will be tricked into believing that the browser supports features that it doesn’t, and would then use the incompatible implementation.

    You’re better off making a utility class or set of functions to fill in the gaps, while not interfering with the browser’s native objects.

    A good example is how Historyjs creates the History object which calls the native history object if it exists.

  • Binyamin says:

    element.classList.remove('one', 'two', 'three');
    element.classList.add('one', 'two', 'three');
    are supported on Chrome 28 stable and Opera 15.
    Multiple classes remove/add not supported even on Firefox Nightly.

  • Binyamin says:

    Cannot toggle multiple classes element.classList.toggle('one', 'two').

  • Judaica says:

    The classlist. certainly does it for me. A great way to manipulate and allow interaction. I’m all for it.

  • hi,

    and if you want to find/know where come “DOMTokenList” then you can do this:

    var r = document.createElement(‘div’);

    r === “DOMTokenList” // :)

  • Nice writeup and so happy to find classList exists. But to remove all classes or replace with a new list, why not simply set className? No loops needed at all.

  • Uxus says:

    You have duplicate declaration of `classes` variable in your `addmany` and `removemany` methods. The var keyword is not necessary there cause `classes` variable is already declared. And I modified the mthods so they don’t have explicit variable declarations:

    DOMTokenList.prototype.addmany = function(classes) {
    classes.split(' ').forEach(function(cls){
    }, this);

    This of course not so fast as `for loop` but more readable.

  • It would be nice if add() would take an array of classes but it seems to only half work( i.e. not at all!) producing a weird comma separated string.

    You can use apply() though to do the same thing:

    var el = document.getElementById('myel');

    el.classList.add.apply(el.classList, ['red', 'green']);

    Js fiddle demonstrating this here:


    Works in latest desktop Safari, Chrome and Firefox at least.

  • allonestring says:

    classList.item() was just what I needed – thank you ☺

  • Jan says:

    From the following page:

    I saved the classList.js script in the same folder as my web page, and reference it like this:

    But IE8 still gives error on the following line:


    Any input on this would be appreciated!


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